Standard abundances

The table below contains the standard set of elemental abundances, with respect to which all other abundances are defined in our database. The values vaguely represent the present day composition of the solar photosphere, although certain elements cannot be measured directly and must be inferred by other means.

All abundances are expressed following the standard astronomical convention. I.e., all values are expressed in dex and scaled to set the abundance of hydrogen to 12.00 exactly.

Shown in bold are the alpha elements, including all even atomic numbers between 8 (oxygen) and 22 (titanium) inclusive.


Symbol Name Atomic number Atomic weight Abundance Error Reference
HHydrogen11.00797120[1]
HeHelium24.002610.980[2]
LiLithium36.9413.260.05[4]
BeBeryllium49.012181.380.09[3]
BBoron510.812.790.04[4]
CCarbon612.0118.50.06[6]
NNitrogen714.00677.860.12[6]
OOxygen815.99948.760.12[6]
FFluorine918.9984034.560.3[3]
NeNeon1020.1798.020.09[8]
NaSodium1122.989776.240.04[3]
MgMagnesium1224.3057.60.04[3]
AlAluminium1326.981546.450.03[3]
SiSilicon1428.08557.510.03[3]
PPhosphorus1530.973765.460.04[6]
SSulfur1632.067.160.05[7]
ClChlorine1735.4535.50.3[3]
ArArgon1839.9486.40.13[5]
KPotassium1939.09835.110.09[6]
CaCalcium2040.086.340.04[3]
ScScandium2144.95593.150.04[3]
TiTitanium2247.94.950.05[3]
VVanadium2350.94153.930.08[3]
CrChromium2451.9965.640.04[3]
MnManganese2554.9385.430.05[3]
FeIron2655.8477.520.06[6]
CoCobalt2758.93324.990.07[3]
NiNickel2858.76.220.04[3]
CuCopper2963.5464.190.04[3]
ZnZinc3065.384.560.05[3]
GaGallium3169.723.040.09[3]
GeGermanium3272.593.650.1[3]
AsArsenic3374.92162.30.04[4]
SeSelenium3478.963.340.03[4]
BrBromine3579.9042.540.06[4]
KrKrypton3683.83.250.06[5]
RbRubidium3785.46782.360.03[4]
SrStrontium3887.622.870.07[3]
YYttrium3988.90592.210.05[3]
ZrZirconium4091.222.620.06[7]
NbNiobium4192.90641.460.04[3]
MoMolybdenum4295.941.880.08[3]
RuRuthenium44101.071.750.08[3]
RhRhodium45102.90551.060.04[4]
PdPalladium46106.41.650.02[4]
AgSilver47107.8681.20.02[4]
CdCadmium48112.411.710.03[4]
InIndium49114.820.760.03[4]
SnTin50118.692.040.1[3]
SbAntimony51121.751.010.06[4]
TeTellurium52127.62.180.03[4]
IIodine53126.90451.550.08[4]
XeXenon54131.32.240.06[5]
CsCaesium55132.90541.080.02[4]
BaBarium56137.332.180.09[3]
LaLanthanum57138.90551.10.04[3]
CeCerium58140.121.580.04[3]
PrPraseodymium59140.90770.720.04[3]
NdNeodymium60144.241.420.04[3]
SmSamarium62150.40.960.04[3]
EuEuropium63151.960.520.04[3]
GdGadolinium64157.251.070.04[3]
TbTerbium65158.92540.30.1[3]
DyDysprosium66162.51.10.04[3]
HoHolmium67164.93040.480.11[3]
ErErbium68167.260.920.05[3]
TmThulium69168.93420.10.04[3]
YbYtterbium70173.040.920.02[4]
LuLutetium71174.9670.10.09[3]
HfHafnium72178.490.870.04[6]
TaTantalum73180.9479-0.120.04[4]
WTungsten74183.850.650.04[4]
ReRhenium75186.2070.260.04[4]
OsOsmium76190.21.360.19[6]
IrIridium77192.221.380.07[3]
PtPlatinum78195.091.620.03[4]
AuGold79196.96650.80.04[4]
HgMercury80200.591.170.08[4]
TlThallium81204.370.770.03[4]
PbLead82207.22.040.03[4]
BiBismuth83208.98040.650.04[4]
ThThorium90232.03810.080.03[6]
UUranium92238.029-0.540.03[4]

References

  • [1] The hydrogen abundance is 12.00 by definition
  • [2] Helium abundance in a protostar using the standard solar model from Christensen-Dalsgaard 1998
  • [3] Present day spectroscopic photospheric abundances from Asplund+2009, table I
  • [4] Meteoritic abundances from Asplund+2009, table I
  • [5] Present day indirect photospheric abundances from Asplund+2009, table I (see section 3.6 for details)
  • [6] Present day spectroscopic photospheric abundances from Caffau+2011a, table V (using CO5BOLD 3D model of the solar atmosphere)
  • [7] Present day spectroscopic photospheric abundance of zirconium from Caffau+2011b
  • [8] Present day spectroscopic photospheric abundance of neon from Takeda+2010